Organic Spectroscopy and Chromatography by M Younas Third Edition

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Organic Spectroscopy and Chromatography by M Younas Third Edition

Organic Spectroscopy and Chromatography by M Younas Third Edition

Free Download Organic Spectroscopy and Chromatography by M Younas – Third Edition

 Organic Spectroscopy and Chromatography


M Younas
PhD. Cambridge
Professor at Institute of Chemistry University of Punjab


Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Electromagnetic radiations

Electromagnetic spectrum

Molecular energy levels

Interaction between electromagnetic radiations and molecules

Molecular transitions and spectral regions

Relaxation of the excited molecules


Interpretation of spectra

Chapter 2 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy

Absorption of radiations and electronic transitions, Intensities of absorptions

Effect of solvents on absorptions


The chromophore

Absorption by conjugated systems

Absorption by aromatic compounds

Applications of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy

Chapter 3 Infrared Spectroscopy

Vibrational modes and absorption frequencies

Factors influencing absorption frequencies



Sample handling

Interpretation of infrared spectra

Characteristic absorption frequencies of some common functional groups

Applications of infrared spectroscopy

Chapter 4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Basic theory


Sample handling


The chemical shift

Molecular structure and chemical shifts

Spin-spin splitting

Factors influencing the coupling constants

Simplification of complex spectra

Interpretation of PMR spectra



Pulsed Fourier transformation technique

Simplification of CMR spectra

Nuclear over Hauser effect

Gated decoupling

Distortion less enhancement by polarization transfer

Peak intensities

Chemical shifts in CMR spectra

Factors affecting “C chemical shifts

“C chemical shifts in organic compounds

Interpretation of CMR spectra


The rotating frame of reference

Pulse sequences


Polarization transfer

Carbon-13 with attached protons

Determination of spin-lattice relaxation time Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

2-DJ-resolved spectroscopy

2D chemical shift correlation spectroscopy

Chapter 5. Mass Spectrometry

Basic principle

Instrumentation (theory and operation)

The mass spectrum

Determination of molecular weight

Determination of the molecular formula

Determination of the molecular structure

Chapter 6 Chromatography


Column chromatography

High-performance liquid chromatography

Plane chromatography


Gas chromatograph

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Appendix, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer

The interferometer


The spectrum


Solutions to the Problems

Objective Questions

Answers to the Objective Questions

Compound Index General Index


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