Physical Chemistry By A.G. Whittaker (informative)

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Physical Chemistry By A.G. Whittaker (informative)

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Free download Physical Chemistry By A.G. Whittaker


Authors of: Physical Chemistry By A.G. Whittaker


A. G. Whittaker

A. R. Mount

M. R. Heal


Table of Contents in Physical Chemistry By A.G. Whittaker



Section A— States of matter

A1 Perfect gases

A2 Molecular behavior in perfect gases

A3 Non-ideal gases

A4 Liquids

A5 Crystalline solids

A6 Diffraction by solids

Section B— Thermodynamics

B1 The first law

B2 Enthalpy

B3 Thermochemistry

B4 Entropy

B5 Entropy and change

B6 Free energy

Section C— Equilibria

C1 Fundamentals of equilibria

C2 Fundamentals of acids and bases

C3 Further acids and bases

C4 Acid-base titrations

C5 Solubility

Section D— Solutions

D1 Non-electrolyte solutions

D2 Solutions

D3 Colligative properties

D4 Phase equilibria

D5 Phase diagrams of mixtures

Section E— Ionic solutions

E1 Ions in aqueous solution

E2 Thermodynamics of ions in solution

E3 Electrochemical cells

E4 Electrochemical thermodynamics

E5 Electrochemistry and ion concentration

E6 Macroscopic aspects of ionic motion

E7 Molecular aspects of ionic motion

E8 The motion of larger ions

Section F— Kinetics

F1 Empirical approaches to kinetics

F2 Rate law determination

F3 Energetics and mechanisms

F4 Formulation of rate laws

F5 Rate laws in action

F6 The kinetics of real systems

Section G— Quantum nature of the physical world

G1 Nuclear structure

G2 Applications of nuclear structure

G3 Quantization of energy and particle-wave duality

G4 The wave nature of matter

G5 The structure of the hydrogen atom

G6 Many-electron atoms

G7 Chemical and structural effects of quantization

G8 Statistical thermodynamics

Section H— Bonding

H1 Elementary valence theory

H2 Valence bond theory

H3 Molecular orbital theory of diatomic molecules I

H4 Molecular orbital theory of diatomic molecules II

H5 Strong solid phase interactions

H6 Weak intermolecular interactions

Section I— Spectroscopy

I1 General features of spectroscopy

I2 Practical aspects of spectroscopy

I3 Rotational spectroscopy

I4 Vibrational spectroscopy

I5 Applied vibrational spectroscopy

I6 Electronic spectroscopy

I7 Photochemistry in the real world

I8 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Appendix— mathematical relations

Further reading


Section A— States of Matter

In this section, we delve into the fundamental states of matter, starting with an exploration of perfect gases (A1) and their molecular behavior (A2). We then extend our understanding to non-ideal gases (A3), followed by an examination of liquids (A4) and crystalline solids (A5). Finally, we explore the phenomenon of diffraction by solids (A6).

Section B— Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics, a cornerstone of physical chemistry, is explored in this section. Beginning with the first law (B1), we introduce the concept of energy conservation. Enthalpy (B2) and its role in chemical processes are discussed, followed by an exploration of thermochemistry (B3). Entropy (B4) and its relationship with change (B5) are then examined, leading to a discussion on free energy (B6) and its significance in determining spontaneity.

Section C— Equilibria

Equilibria, both chemical and acid-base, are the focus of this section. Fundamentals of equilibria (C1) are introduced, followed by an exploration of acids and bases (C2). Further discussions on acid-base reactions (C3) and their titrations (C4) are presented, along with an examination of solubility (C5).

Section D— Solutions

The behavior of solutions is discussed in this section, beginning with non-electrolyte solutions (D1) and their properties. We then delve into the broader concept of solutions (D2) and their colligative properties (D3). Phase equilibria (D4) and phase diagrams of mixtures (D5) are explored to provide a comprehensive understanding of solution behavior.

Section E— Ionic Solutions

Ionic solutions and their thermodynamic properties are the focus of this section. We start by examining ions in aqueous solutions (E1) and their behavior. Thermodynamics of ions in solution (E2) are then discussed, followed by an exploration of electrochemical cells (E3) and their thermodynamics (E4). The relationship between electrochemistry and ion concentration (E5) is also examined, along with macroscopic and molecular aspects of ionic motion (E6, E7). Additionally, we explore the motion of larger ions (E8) and its implications in solution behavior.

Section F— Kinetics

Kinetics, the study of reaction rates, is the central theme of this section. Empirical approaches to kinetics (F1) are introduced, followed by discussions on rate law determination (F2) and energetics/mechanisms (F3). The formulation and application of rate laws (F4, F5) in various systems are explored, along with a discussion on the kinetics of real systems (F6).

Section G— Quantum Nature of the Physical World

Delving into the realm of quantum mechanics, this section explores the fundamental nature of matter and energy. Beginning with nuclear structure (G1) and its applications (G2), we delve into the quantization of energy and particle-wave duality (G3) and the wave nature of matter (G4). The structure of the hydrogen atom (G5), many-electron atoms (G6), and the chemical/structural effects of quantization (G7) are discussed, culminating in an exploration of statistical thermodynamics (G8).

Section H— Bonding

Bonding theories and interactions are explored in this section. Starting with elementary valence theory (H1), we progress to valence bond theory (H2) and molecular orbital theory of diatomic molecules (H3, H4). Strong solid phase interactions (H5) and weak intermolecular interactions (H6) are also discussed in detail.

Section I— Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy, a powerful analytical technique, is the focus of this section. General features (I1) and practical aspects (I2) of spectroscopy are introduced, followed by discussions on rotational (I3) and vibrational spectroscopy (I4, I5). Electronic spectroscopy (I6) and its real-world applications in photochemistry (I7) are explored, along with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (I8).

Appendix— Mathematical Relations

This section provides a compilation of mathematical relations relevant to the topics discussed throughout the text.

Further Reading

Suggestions for further reading and exploration of the topics covered in the text are provided for interested readers.


An index is included to facilitate easy navigation and reference within the text.

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